- the official website of Sofia International Model United Nations

2-nd Sofia International Model United Nations (SOFIMUN)

18-25 July 2009

Sofia, Bulgaria

         Search Of Future Ideas, Models Us Now

Destination Bulgaria - meet you there        









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What is Model UN?


Model United Nations, commonly known as MUN, is a simulation of the United Nations. In this simulation participants (students and young professionals) take on the roles of foreign diplomats and debate contemporary international matters. Depending on the UN body he or she is assigned to this can vary from a military crisis or human rights abuses to climate change...




Preparation for a Model UN


- How to get prepared for a model UN?

- What to do step-by-step?

- What information do I need?

- From where to gather information?

- What is a position paper and how to right it?

- What is a state fact-sheet?

- Why do I need an opening speech?




SOFIMUN organs




Security Council


The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able to function continuously, and a representative of each of its members must be present at all times at United Nations Headquarters.


When a threat against international peace is brought to the attention of the Security Council, the council first attempts to negotiate a settlement between the disputing parties. The council may use its own member delegations, refer the issue to discussion in the General Assembly, or appoint the Secretary-General, the head of the United Nations, to act as mediator. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement as well.


If no peaceful agreement can be reached, and the disputing factions use violence, intimidation, or force, the Security Council can then enact policy resolutions to solve the conflict or restore peace. Sometimes this policy includes economic sanctions such as trade embargoes or prohibitions on governments borrowing from international funds. Under the Security Council regulations, however, humanitarian aid can never be withheld from any nation or group of people. The Security Council also reserves the right to recommend expulsion of any UN member state in gross violation of the UN charter and international law, though the dismissal must be voted on and passed in the General Assembly.


The Security Council is the only United Nations organization that can authorize military action and maintain a military-trained peacekeeping force. In violent international dispute, the Security Council can send intervening peacekeeping troops to secure areas in turmoil.


The Security Council is further responsible for overseeing compliance with international agreements involving weapons, the rules of engagement (conduct during war), the illegal spread of nuclear technology, and other threats to international peace. To enforce these treaties, such as international agreements on nuclear non-proliferation, the Security Council can authorize UN-led inspections of a nation's military arsenal. In addition, the Security Council can order sanctions or authorize military action.


More at:


Topic A


Topic B

Afghanistan - Pakistan



Summary & Guide

Summary & Guide



Security Council




States: (BOLD style = taken)


1. Afghanistan (Observer)

2. Austria

3. Burkina Faso

4. China (People's Republic of)

5. Costa Rica

6. Croatia

7. France

8. India (Observer)

9. Japan

10. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

11. Mexico

12. Pakistan (Observer)

13. Russian Federation

14. Turkey

15. Uganda

16. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

17. United States of America

18. Vietnam


Human Rights Council


The United Nations Human Rights Council is created in March, 2006 and is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticized for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. The Council is considered an international body within the United Nations System and its purpose is to address human rights violations.


The Council assumes all the mechanisms, mandates, functions and responsibilities of the Commission for Human Rights. At the same time, it is tasked with the review, rationalization and improvement of these. This makes up the bulk of the Council’s work in its first year.


Special procedures" is the name given to the mechanisms established by the former United Nations Commission on Human Rights and continued by the Human Rights Council to monitor human rights violations in specific countries or examine global human rights issues. Special procedures can be either individuals who are leading experts in a particular area of human rights, or working groups usually composed of five members. In order to preserve their independence they do not receive pay for their work.


More at:


Topic A

Defining the right to self-determination

Topic B

The right to self-determination in practice – the case of Kosovo and Abkhazia/ South Ossetia


Summary & Guide

Summary & Guide



Human Rights Council




States: (BOLD style = taken)


1. Angola

2. Argentina

3. Azerbaijan

4. Bosnia and Herzegovina

5. Brazil

6. Burkina Faso

7. Canada

8. China (People's Republic of)

9. Cuba

10. Egypt

11. France

12. Georgia (Observer)

13. Germany

14. India

15. Indonesia

16. Kosovo (Observer)

17. Nicaragua

18. Pakistan

19. Philippines

20. Russian Federation

21. Senegal

22. Serbia (Observer)

23. Slovakia

24. Slovenia

25. South Africa

26. Switzerland

27. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

28. Representative of the: Abkhazian People's (Observer)

29. Representative of the: South Ossetian People's (Observer)

30. NGO: Human Rights Watch (Observer)

31. NGO: Unrepresented Nations and People's (UNPO)


United Nations Development Program


UNDP is the UN's global development network, an organization advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. We are on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.


World leaders have pledged to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, including the overarching goal of cutting poverty in half by 2015. UNDP's network links and coordinates global and national efforts to reach these Goals. Our focus is helping countries build and share solutions to the challenges of:

- Democratic Governance

- Poverty Reduction

- Crisis Prevention and Recovery

- Environment and Energy



UNDP helps developing countries attract and use aid effectively. In all our activities, we encourage the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women.


The annual Human Development Report, commissioned by UNDP, focuses the global debate on key development issues, providing new measurement tools, innovative analysis and often controversial policy proposals. The global Report's analytical framework and inclusive approach carry over into regional, national and local Human Development Reports, also supported by UNDP.


In each country office, the UNDP Resident Representative normally also serves as the Resident Coordinator of development activities for the United Nations system as a whole. Through such coordination, UNDP seeks to ensure the most effective use of UN and international aid resources.


More at:




Topic A

Public-private partnerships in natural resource management in developing countries

Topic B

Water governance: corruption in the water sector in developing countries


Summary & Guide

Summary & Guide



United Nations Development Program




States: (BOLD style = taken)


1. Austria

2. Azerbaijan

3. China (People's Republic of)

4. Congo (Democratic Republic of the)

5. Cuba

6. Finland

7. France

8. Germany

9. India

10. Iran (Islamic Republic of)

11. Italy

12. Kenya

13. Korea (Republic of)

14. Mexico

15. Namibia

16. Netherlands

17. New Zealand

18. Russian Federation

19. Senegal

20. Serbia

21. Slovakia

22. Somalia

23. South Africa

24. Sweden

25. Switzerland

26. Turkey

27. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

28. United States of America

29. Venezuela

30. Vietnam

31. NGO: Oxfam International (Observer)


Disarmament and International Security Committee


The DISEC committee was established by the United Nations to serve as a forum for representatives from all UN member countries to debate issues of disarmament and security in an environment of equality. This committee takes measures necessary for the prevention or the reduction of international hostilities and conflict on matters that are not discussed by the United Nations Security Council.


As stated in the UN Charter, the DISEC Committee is actually called upon to "consider the general principles of co-operation in the maintenance of international peace and security" (Chapter IV, Article 11). However, unlike the Security Council, DISEC does not have the power to impose sanctions or to authorize armed interventions. As a preliminary organ, DISEC serves as the first level of discussion for most recent issues in the disarmament and security sphere, thus setting programmatic directions and giving more freedom to states to fully develop their positions. DISEC’s resolutions function as „raw material“, a constitutive basis for General Assembly resolutions or is submitted as recommendations to the Secretariat or the Security Council. The DISEC Committee is comprised of all member states of the United Nations, each having one vote. Resolutions are passed by a simple majority vote.


Engaged in the DISEC Committee consultations, you will have a unique opportunity to actively participate in formulating the global security agenda, contributing to better understanding and providing recommendations and solutions to various forms of international conflicts, disarmament and other security policy related matters.


"Disarmament and non-proliferation challenges from Missile Defence to re-arming of Middle East: Impact on the international security and regional security sub-systems"


More at:


Topic A

Missiles and the security implications for the Middle-East

Topic B

Maritime security - piracy and terrorism in international seas


Summary & Guide

Summary & Guide



Disarmament and International Security Committee




States: (BOLD style = taken)


1. Brazil

2. China (People's Republic of)

3. Czech Republic

4. DPR Korea

5. Egypt

6. France

7. Germany

8. Greece

9. India

10. Indonesia

11. Iran (Islamic Republic of)

12. Israel

13. Japan

14. Jordan

15. Kenya

16. Nigeria

17. Pakistan

18. Palestinian Authority

19. Poland

20. Russian Federation

21. Saudi Arabia

22. South Africa

23. Somalia

24. Sudan

25. Syria

26. Turkey

27. Malaysia

28. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

29. United States of America

30. Venezuela


United Nations Peacebuilding Commission


The United Nations established the Peacebuilding Commission in 2005 to improve the international community’s support for countries just emerging from violent conflict. The Commission (or PBC) is an intergovernmental advisory body with 31 member states. It provides short to medium-term engagement between the international community and vulnerable governments and serves as a forum for bringing together stakeholders to ensure better coordination in peacebuilding.


The Peacebuilding Commission was created by the Security Council and General Assembly in joint resolutions and began meeting in June 2006. Within the UN system, the Peacebuilding Commission is unprecedented in its organization and mandate, including providing advice to the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council on critical peacebuilding issues. The PBC is also mandated to engage with the World Bank and IMF.


The Commission meets regularly at UN headquarters in New York to provide advice on peacebuilding in selected countries and to consider the development of best practices in peacebuilding. Countries can be referred to the PBC by the Security Council and the Secretary-General, as well as by the country itself, the General Assembly or the Economic and Social Council in exceptional cases.


Most of the Commission’s work takes place in country-specific meetings that address peacebuilding challenges specific to the country receiving advice from the PBC. All PBC members and relevant stakeholders, including representatives from the selected country, are invited to participate in country-specific meetings. Through such meetings and consultations held in the countries receiving advice, key priority areas for successful peacebuilding in that country are identified. Special attention is paid to identifying gaps in existing UN, World Bank and other strategies for peacebuilding or development.


The PBC supports the development of a peacebuilding framework document for the country and the development of a mechanism in-country to monitor progress in achieving key peacebuilding goals. The PBC at UN headquarters can use the peacebuilding framework document and consultations that take place in its meetings to sustain international interest in the selected country, marshal resources for peacebuilding there and bring attention to potential threats to peace. The PBC is able to provide advice to relevant bodies (mostly within the UN system) on peacebuilding in that country.


More at:


Topic A

Cooperation and integration of the Peacebuilding Commission in peace keeping missions

Topic B

Peace building towards the construction of capable States in Africa and the role of developed countries


Summary & Guide

Summary & Guide



United Nations Peacebuilding Commission




States: (BOLD style = taken)


1. Burundi

2. Central African Republic (CAR)

3. Chile

4. China (People's Republic of)

5. France

6. Germany

7. Guinea-Bissau

8. India

9. Indonesia

10. Israel

11. Italy

12. Lebanon

13. Mexico

14. Morocco

15. Nigeria

16. Pakistan

17. Poland

18. Russian Federation

19. Sierra Leone

20. Somalia

21. South Africa

22. Sweden

23. The Netherlands

24. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

25. United States of America



SNN - SOFIMUN News Network (Official media body of SOFIMUN)


The SNN is the official media body of the Sofia International Model United Nations conference. The media will be set up to keep all participants in the conference informed about the latest events and developments in the various forums and lobbying areas.


The SNN media is part of the conference organs. Achieving its aim to keep all SOFIMUN participants up-to-date, the media will have everyday issues. It will be realized into three main directions – a PDF version, formed as a newspaper, a website with constant refresh of the newest happenings and video broadcasts – interviews, news, etc.


The purpose of SNN is to serve as central information point on all important things that happen on SOFIMUN. Its journalist team will be selected through international application (same as for the rest of the SOFIMUN organs) and will have an editor in chief, governing the whole media sources on the conference.


The journalist team will broadcast the work of each committee;  pay specific attention to any delegate and his work; write articles and take interviews from participants during the SOFIMUN. Each SOFIMUN organ will have at least 2 journalists, carefully following its work and broadcasting the latest news on world issues that are of concern of the UN bodies being represented at SOFIMUN. Therefore, the SNN is the place where all of you wishing to be active as journalist and are interested in the media field can show what you've got! You will represent the strong voice and influence of the medias in the modern world. What you write constitutes the principal source of information on the developments within the workshops at the delegate’s disposal. It fundamentally influences their decision-taking during the negotiations and the sessions.



Participation in SNN as a journalist offers you a unique opportunity to act and work as a real journalist - realistic insight into the work of a journalist reporting on an international conference, the possibility of deepening your knowledge in journalism and a specific area of the international relations, the opportunity of meeting over 150 people from around the world sharing your passion for journalism and world affairs.



Being a journalist also brings responsibilities, from which among the most essential are: proficient English, talented writing, fluently use of technical devices (computer, camera), adoption of critical approach without loosing accuracy, team-working and flexibility.


You can select which media you want to represent by the following list. SNN offers you to choose between popular medias, separated into two general groups: the pan-European medias of the European Union, EURONEWS and EUOBSERVER and 8 other international medias in English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, Russian, German.


If you wan to take part in the SNN media, register through our registration form. and mark "SNN (SOFIMUN News Network)" in "Desired organ" field.


More at:


SOFIMUN News Network




Media representatives: (RED color = taken)



2 delegates - (1+1)

The leading media of the European Union


1 delegate - (1)

The leading online media of the European Union


1 delegate - (1)



1 delegate - (1)

Dubai, UAE


1 delegate - (1)

United States of America


2 delegates - (1+1)



2 delegates - (1+1)

United Kingdom


2 delegates - (1+1)



2 delegates - (1+1)



1 delegate - (1)

People's Republic of China


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